Impact of office hysteroscopy in repeated implantation failure: experience of a single center
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Objective: Repeated implantation failure (RIF) is a clinical entity affecting many couples undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART). Various intrauterine pathologies contribute to RIF. Nevertheless, vaginal sonography and hysterosalpingography, which are the common diagnostic tools for the initial follow-up, have limited sensitivities. In this context, we aimed to evaluate the impact of office hysteroscopy (oHS) on live birth rates (LBRs) when performed prior to subsequent ART cycles in women with a history of RIF. Material and Methods: The database of an assisted reproduction center was retrospectively reviewed to detect eligible cases. A total of 363 women out of 2875 admissions were consecutively included in the analysis, of which 119 formed the oHS group and 244 formed the non-oHS group prior to a new ART cycle. Women in the oHS arm were examined during their early follicular phase via a vaginoscopic approach 1–6 months before the beginning of a new cycle. The standard in-vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) cycle was applied to all the women. Results: In the oHS group (n=119), 61 patients had intrauterine abnormalities, with an overall abnormality rate of 51.2%. Implantation, pregnancy, and LBRs of the groups were statistically similar. LBRs of the women with abnormal oHS findings (15/61, 24.5%), with normal oHS findings (14/58, 24.1%), and without oHS (39/244, 16%) were statistically similar (p=0.41). Conclusion: Unrecognized intrauterine pathologies can be easily detected and concurrently treated during oHS with high success rate. However, a beneficial impact depends on the extent of the pathology and thus, routine application to enhance reproductive outcomes is still not warranted.