The evaluation of cystatin c, ıl-1 beta, and tnf-alpha levels in total saliva and gingival crevicular fluid from 11- to 16-year-old children
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Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of cystatin C, interleukin-1b (IL-1b), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a) in the total saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of periodontally healthy children (PHC) and children with gingivitis (CG) who were between 11 and 16 years old. Methods: The study was carried out with 10 PHC and 25 CG. Unstimulated total saliva and GCF samples were obtained. Clinical parameters, including probing depth (PD), clinical attachment loss (CAL), plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), and gingival bleeding index (GBI), were assessed. GCF samples were collected from four maxillary upper incisors. After sampling, biochemical analyses were performed using latex particle–enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay for cystatin C and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for IL-1b and TNF-a. The multivariate analysis of variance test was used for statistical evaluation. Results: In total saliva, cystatin C and TNF-a levels were higher in PHC, and IL-1b levels were higher in CG, but the differences were not statistically significant. In GCF, cystatin C levels were higher in PHC (P >0.05), whereas TNF-a and IL-1b levels were higher in CG (P >0.05). In the CG group, there were positive correlations between the GCF cystatin C level and the PI of the sampled site (r = 0.488; P <0.05); also, GCF IL-1b (r = 0.603; P <0.05) and TNF-a (r = 0.456; P <0.05) levels were positively correlated with PD and CAL. For the whole mouth and the sampled sites, PI, GI, GBI, PD, and CAL values were higher in CG (P <0.05), but no significant differences were detected between GCF volumes of the two groups. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first evaluation of cystatin C in the gingival disease mechanism in children. Our results showed that total saliva and GCF cystatin C levels were higher in PHC (P >0.05), but there was no correlation between cystatin C levels and IL-1b or TNF-a levels in total saliva or GCF.